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## BOOK REVIEW: BEYOND NEWTON AND ARCHIMEDES

August 18, 2014 03:22 PM

**Shimla ( -Vijyender Sharma )**

**The** theme of the book is that 2265 years old Archimedes principle , 330 years old Newton’s third law required to be generalized. The reason is that when these laws are subjected to modern mathematical equations and experiments then their inconsistencies are highlighted. These laws were the best for the system they were formulated. Author who spent over 32 years on the book strongly feels, it will be introduced in textbooks of school one day. Aristotle (384BC- 322BC) stated that heavier body falls quickly than lighter body. It appears true as stone falls quickly than a straw. However after nearly 2000 years in 1631, Galileo contradicted it in more realistic observation, as two balls of mass 10kg and 5kg fall equal distances in equal interval of time. Stoke law (1819-1903) also deals with falling spheres of very small size in viscous fluids. The mathematical equation of Stokes Law implies that heavier sphere falls quickly than lighter ones. It is like Aristotle’s assertion. Thus abandoned Aristotle’s assertion (about 350 years ago) is true even now under certain conditions, Stokes law holds good. Thus Aristotle’s assertion is still useful in such cases. 2265 years old Archimedes principle is the oldest principle in science. It implies decrease in weight of body is equal to weight of fluid displaced. Its two main limitations are pointed out. Firstly it does not account for the shape of the body. It implies a spherical, flat, and twisted, umbrella shaped must fall through equal distances in equal intervals of time. But it is not experimental observation. Thus principle needs to be generalized that decrease in weight of body is proportional to weight of fluids displaced. Thus additional factor comes in picture which accounts for shape of body. In addition under some feasible conditions the mathematical equations based upon Archimedes principle imply that volume of medium filled in balloon becomes indeterminate i.e. V =0/0. It is meaningless predictions from Archimedes concluded in the book. If the generalized form of the principle is used then we get exact volume i.e. V=V. There is no complete theory in existing science which may explain natural motion of bodies( 1mgm, 1kg or 10kg ) of steel of different shapes e.g. spherical, flat, umbrella shaped, thin pipe shaped etc. in liquids. There exists no mathematical equation which may predict in time 4s, how much distance will be travelled by different bodies (mentioned above). In the existing literature Archimedes principle, law of gravitation, Stokes law, drag force and Techen’s equations are used for the purpose. But each is applicable in limited region and explanation is qualitative. The same arguments are true for rising bodies also. Thus to explain the phenomena over wide range an alternate theory is required, which takes all elusive factors (shape of body, magnitude of body, distortion of body, magnitude of medium, shape of medium, state of motion of medium etc.) in account. Thus generalized theory for explaining rising, falling and floating bodies is developed which can be experimentally tested. If we look at various developments in history of science, then Newton’s first law of motion is just other form of Galileo’s law of inertia. Galileo defined the law of inertia in i.e. years before Newton’s first law of motion. Firstly Newton never gave the second law of motion, as taught right since 9th class all over the world. It was given by Swiss scientist Leonhard Euler in 1775 i.e. 48 years after death of Newton by Euler. So it is not scientific and logical to teach Newton’s second law of motion, and Newton’s law. It is Euler’s law. It is strange state of Newton’s first two laws of motion. Third law states that – ‘to every action there is equal and opposite reaction.’ Consider a rubber ball is thrown at the wall from the distance of 5m and after striking it again comes back to original point travelling distance of 5 m. Thus action and reaction are equal and opposite in this case. Further consider a wooden ball is thrown under similar conditions from distance of 5m and after striking the wall it rebounds to 2m only. Thus action and reaction are not equal. So the third law is not obeyed in all cases. Hence third law is generalized- ‘to every action there is opposite reaction but it may or may not be equal’. Evangelista Torricelli constructed mercury barometer in 1643. But till date water barometer has not be constructed since past 370 years. In this case the length of water column must be 10.3m and a glass tube of length over 40 feet. So it would be both scientific and popular experiment. If height of water column is not 10.3m , the acceleration due to gravity will differ from 9.8m/s or mass of earth would come out to be different. This is importance of the experiment. If the water barometer (involving 40 feet long tube) is constructed, then mass of the earth can be measured by this method.

**Author Ajay Sharma **

Publisher: Cambridge International Science Publishing, Cambridge England. ** **

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